react-native之ART绘图方法详解

背景

移动应用的开发过程中,绘制基本的二维图形或动画是必不可少的。然而,考虑到android和iOS均有一套各自的API方案,因此采用一种更普遍接受的技术方案,更有利于代码的双平台兼容。

art是一个旨在多浏览器兼容的Node style CommonJS模块。在它的基础上,Facebook又开发了React-art ,封装art,使之可以被react.js所使用,即实现了前端的svg库。然而,考虑到react.js的JSX语法,已经支持将 等等svg标签直接插入到dom中(当然此时使用的就不是react-art库了)此外还有HTML canvas的存在,因此,在前端上,react-art并非不可替代。

然而,在移动端,考虑到跨平台的需求,加之web端的技术积累,react-art成为了现成的绘制图形的解决方案。react-native分别在0.10.0和0.18.0上添加了ios和android平台上对react-art的支持。

示例代码

React.js和React-Native的区别,只在于下文所述的ART获取上,然后该例子就可以同时应用在Web端和移动端上了。react-art自带的官方例子:Vector-Widget

Vector-Widget额外实现了旋转,以及鼠标点击事件的旋转加速响应。Web端可以看到点击加速,但是在移动端无效,原因是React Native并未对Group中onMouseDown和onMouseUp属性作处理。本文着重于静态svg的实现,暂时无视动画部分效果即可。

ART

在react native中ART是个非常重要的库,它让非常酷炫的绘图及动画变成了可能。需要注意的是,在React Native引入ART过程中,Android默认就包含ART库,IOS需要单独添加依赖库。

ios添加依赖库

1、使用xcode中打开React-native中的iOS项目,选中‘Libraries'目录 ——> 右键选择‘Add Files to 项目名称' ——> ‘node_modules/react-native/Libraries/ART/ART.xcodeproj' 添加;

这里写图片描述

2、选中项目根目录 ——> 点击'Build Phases‘ ——> 点击‘Link Binary With Libraries' ——> 点击左下方‘+' ——> 选中‘libART.a'添加。

这里写图片描述

基础组件

ART暴露的组件共有7个,本文介绍常用的四个组件:Surface、Group、Shape、Text。

    Surface - 一个矩形可渲染的区域,是其他元素的容器 Group - 可容纳多个形状、文本和其他的分组 Shape - 形状定义,可填充 Text - 文本形状定义

属性

Surface

    width : 渲染区域的宽 height : 定义渲染区域的高

Shape

    d : 定义绘制路径 stroke : 描边颜色 strokeWidth : 描边宽度 strokeDash : 定义虚线 fill : 填充颜色

Text

    funt : 字体样式,定义字体、大小、是否加粗 如: bold 35px Heiti SC

Path

    moveTo(x,y) : 移动到坐标(x,y) lineTo(x,y) : 连线到(x,y) arc() : 绘制弧线 close() : 封闭空间

代码示例

绘制直线

这里写图片描述

import React from 'react'
import {
  View,
  ART
} from 'react-native'

export default class Line extends React.Component{

  render(){

    const path = ART.Path();
    path.moveTo(1,1); //将起始点移动到(1,1) 默认(0,0)
    path.lineTo(300,1); //连线到目标点(300,1)

    return(
      <View style={this.props.style}>
        <ART.Surface width={300} height={2}>
          <ART.Shape d={path} stroke="#000000" strokeWidth={1} />
        </ART.Surface>
      </View>
    )
  }
}

绘制虚线

了解strokeDash的参数,

[10,5] : 表示绘10像素实线在绘5像素空白,如此循环

[10,5,20,5] : 表示绘10像素实线在绘制5像素空白在绘20像素实线及5像素空白

这里写图片描述

import React from 'react'
import {
  View,
  ART
} from 'react-native'

const {Surface, Shape, Path} = ART;

export default class DashLine extends React.Component{

  render(){

    const path = Path()
      .moveTo(1,1)
      .lineTo(300,1);

    return(
      <View style={this.props.style}>
        <Surface width={300} height={2}>
          <Shape d={path} stroke="#000000" strokeWidth={2} strokeDash={[10,5]}/>
        </Surface>
      </View>
    )
  }
}

绘制矩形

首先通过lineTo绘制三条边,在使用close链接第四条边。fill做颜色填充.

这里写图片描述

import React from 'react'
import {
  View,
  ART
} from 'react-native'

const {Surface, Shape, Path} = ART;

export default class Rect extends React.Component{

  render(){

    const path = new Path()
      .moveTo(1,1)
      .lineTo(1,99)
      .lineTo(99,99)
      .lineTo(99,1)
      .close();

    return(
      <View style={this.props.style}>
        <Surface width={100} height={100}>
          <Shape d={path} stroke="#000000" fill="#892265" strokeWidth={1} />
        </Surface>
      </View>
    )
  }
}

绘圆

了解arc(x,y,radius)的使用, 终点坐标距离起点坐标的相对距离。

这里写图片描述

import React from 'react'
import {
  View,
  ART
} from 'react-native'

const {Surface, Shape, Path} = ART;

export default class Circle extends React.Component{

  render(){

    const path = new Path()
      .moveTo(50,1)
      .arc(0,99,25)
      .arc(0,-99,25)
      .close();


    return(
      <View style={this.props.style}>
        <Surface width={100} height={100}>
          <Shape d={path} stroke="#000000" strokeWidth={1}/>
        </Surface>
      </View>
    )
  }
}

绘制文字

了解funt属性的使用,规则是“粗细 字号 字体”

注意: 字体应该是支持path属性的,应该是实现bug并没有不生效。 Android通过修改源码是可以解决的,IOS没看源码。

这里写图片描述

import React, {Component} from 'react';
import {
  AppRegistry,
  StyleSheet,
  ART,
  View
} from 'react-native';

const {Surface, Text, Path} = ART;

export default class ArtTextView extends Component {

  render() {

    return (
      <View style={styles.container}>
        <Surface width={100} height={100}>
          <Text strokeWidth={1} stroke="#000" font="bold 35px Heiti SC" path={new Path().moveTo(40,40).lineTo(99,10)} >React</Text>
        </Surface>

      </View>

    );
  }
}

const styles = StyleSheet.create({
  container: {
    flex: 1,
    justifyContent: 'center',
    alignItems: 'center',
    backgroundColor: '#F5FCFF',
  },

});

绘制扇形

这里写图片描述

在这里需要使用arc做路径绘制。

Wedge.js

import React, { Component, PropTypes } from 'react';
import { ART } from 'react-native';
const { Shape, Path } = ART;

/**
 * Wedge is a React component for drawing circles, wedges and arcs. Like other
 * ReactART components, it must be used in a <Surface>.
 */
export default class Wedge extends Component<void, any, any> {

  static propTypes = {
    outerRadius: PropTypes.number.isRequired,
    startAngle: PropTypes.number.isRequired,
    endAngle: PropTypes.number.isRequired,
    originX: PropTypes.number.isRequired,
    originY: PropTypes.number.isRequired,
    innerRadius: PropTypes.number,
  };


  constructor(props : any) {
    super(props);
    (this:any).circleRadians = Math.PI * 2;
    (this:any).radiansPerDegree = Math.PI / 180;
    (this:any)._degreesToRadians = this._degreesToRadians.bind(this);
  }

  /**
   * _degreesToRadians(degrees)
   *
   * Helper function to convert degrees to radians
   *
   * @param {number} degrees
   * @return {number}
   */
  _degreesToRadians(degrees : number) : number {
    if (degrees !== 0 && degrees % 360 === 0) { // 360, 720, etc.
      return (this:any).circleRadians;
    }
    return degrees * (this:any).radiansPerDegree % (this:any).circleRadians;
  }

  /**
   * _createCirclePath(or, ir)
   *
   * Creates the ReactART Path for a complete circle.
   *
   * @param {number} or The outer radius of the circle
   * @param {number} ir The inner radius, greater than zero for a ring
   * @return {object}
   */
  _createCirclePath(or : number, ir : number) : Path {
    const path = new Path();

    path.move(0, or)
      .arc(or * 2, 0, or)
      .arc(-or * 2, 0, or);

    if (ir) {
      path.move(or - ir, 0)
        .counterArc(ir * 2, 0, ir)
        .counterArc(-ir * 2, 0, ir);
    }

    path.close();

    return path;
  }

  /**
   * _createArcPath(sa, ea, ca, or, ir)
   *
   * Creates the ReactART Path for an arc or wedge.
   *
   * @param {number} startAngle The starting degrees relative to 12 o'clock
   * @param {number} endAngle The ending degrees relative to 12 o'clock
   * @param {number} or The outer radius in pixels
   * @param {number} ir The inner radius in pixels, greater than zero for an arc
   * @return {object}
   */
  _createArcPath(originX : number, originY : number, startAngle : number, endAngle : number, or : number, ir : number) : Path {
    const path = new Path();

    // angles in radians
    const sa = this._degreesToRadians(startAngle);
    const ea = this._degreesToRadians(endAngle);

    // central arc angle in radians
    const ca = sa > ea "jb51code">
import React from 'react'
import {
  View,
  ART
} from 'react-native'

const {Surface} = ART;
import Wedge from './Wedge'

export default class Fan extends React.Component{

  render(){

    return(
      <View style={this.props.style}>
        <Surface width={100} height={100}>
          <Wedge
           outerRadius={50}
           startAngle={0}
           endAngle={60}
           originX={50}
           originY={50}
           fill="blue"/>

        </Surface>
      </View>
    )
  }
}

综合示例

这里写图片描述

相关代码:

/**
 * Sample React Native App
 * https://github.com/facebook/react-native
 * @flow
 */

import React, {
  Component
}from 'react';
import {
  ART as Art,
  StyleSheet,
  View,
  Dimensions,
  TouchableWithoutFeedback,
  Animated
} from 'react-native';

var HEART_SVG = "M130.4-0.8c25.4 0 46 20.6 46 46.1 0 13.1-5.5 24.9-14.2 33.3L88 153.6 12.5 77.3c-7.9-8.3-12.8-19.6-12.8-31.9 0-25.5 20.6-46.1 46-46.2 19.1 0 35.5 11.7 42.4 28.4C94.9 11 111.3-0.8 130.4-0.8"
var HEART_COLOR = 'rgb(226,38,77,1)';
var GRAY_HEART_COLOR = "rgb(204,204,204,1)";

var FILL_COLORS = [
  'rgba(221,70,136,1)',
  'rgba(212,106,191,1)',
  'rgba(204,142,245,1)',
  'rgba(204,142,245,1)',
  'rgba(204,142,245,1)',
  'rgba(0,0,0,0)'
];

var PARTICLE_COLORS = [
  'rgb(158, 202, 250)',
  'rgb(161, 235, 206)',
  'rgb(208, 148, 246)',
  'rgb(244, 141, 166)',
  'rgb(234, 171, 104)',
  'rgb(170, 163, 186)'
]

getXYParticle = (total, i, radius) => {
  var angle = ( (2 * Math.PI) / total ) * i;

  var x = Math.round((radius * 2) * Math.cos(angle - (Math.PI / 2)));
  var y = Math.round((radius * 2) * Math.sin(angle - (Math.PI / 2)));
  return {
    x: x,
    y: y,
  }
}

getRandomInt = (min, max) => {
  return Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min)) + min;
}

shuffleArray = (array) => {
  for (var i = array.length - 1; i > 0; i--) {
    var j = Math.floor(Math.random() * (i + 1));
    var temp = array[i];
    array[i] = array[j];
    array[j] = temp;
  }
  return array;
}


var {
  Surface,
  Group,
  Shape,
  Path
} = Art;

//使用Animated.createAnimatedComponent对其他组件创建对话
//创建一个灰色的新型图片
var AnimatedShape = Animated.createAnimatedComponent(Shape);

var {
  width: deviceWidth,
  height: deviceHeight
} = Dimensions.get('window');

export default class ArtAnimView extends Component {
  constructor(props) {
    super(props);

    this.state = {
      animation: new Animated.Value(0)
    };
  }

  explode = () => {
    Animated.timing(this.state.animation, {
      duration: 1500,
      toValue: 28
    }).start(() => {
      this.state.animation.setValue(0);
      this.forceupdate();
    });
  }

  getSmallExplosions = (radius, offset) => {
    return [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6].map((v, i, t) => {

      var scaleOut = this.state.animation.interpolate({
        inputRange: [0, 5.99, 6, 13.99, 14, 21],
        outputRange: [0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0],
        extrapolate: 'clamp'
      });

      var moveUp = this.state.animation.interpolate({
        inputRange: [0, 5.99, 14],
        outputRange: [0, 0, -15],
        extrapolate: 'clamp'
      });

      var moveDown = this.state.animation.interpolate({
        inputRange: [0, 5.99, 14],
        outputRange: [0, 0, 15],
        extrapolate: 'clamp'
      });

      var color_top_particle = this.state.animation.interpolate({
        inputRange: [6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 21],
        outputRange: shuffleArray(PARTICLE_COLORS)
      })

      var color_bottom_particle = this.state.animation.interpolate({
        inputRange: [6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 21],
        outputRange: shuffleArray(PARTICLE_COLORS)
      })

      var position = getXYParticle(7, i, radius)

      return (
        <Group
          x={position.x + offset.x }
          y={position.y + offset.y}
          rotation={getRandomInt(0, 40) * i}
        >
          <AnimatedCircle
            x={moveUp}
            y={moveUp}
            radius={15}
            scale={scaleOut}
            fill={color_top_particle}
          />
          <AnimatedCircle
            x={moveDown}
            y={moveDown}
            radius={8}
            scale={scaleOut}
            fill={color_bottom_particle}
          />
        </Group>
      )
    }, this)
  }

  render() {
    var heart_scale = this.state.animation.interpolate({
      inputRange: [0, .01, 6, 10, 12, 18, 28],
      outputRange: [1, 0, .1, 1, 1.2, 1, 1],
      extrapolate: 'clamp'
    });

    var heart_fill = this.state.animation.interpolate({
      inputRange: [0, 2],
      outputRange: [GRAY_HEART_COLOR, HEART_COLOR],
      extrapolate: 'clamp'
    })

    var heart_x = heart_scale.interpolate({
      inputRange: [0, 1],
      outputRange: [90, 0],
    })

    var heart_y = heart_scale.interpolate({
      inputRange: [0, 1],
      outputRange: [75, 0],
    })

    var circle_scale = this.state.animation.interpolate({
      inputRange: [0, 1, 4],
      outputRange: [0, .3, 1],
      extrapolate: 'clamp'
    });

    var circle_stroke_width = this.state.animation.interpolate({
      inputRange: [0, 5.99, 6, 7, 10],
      outputRange: [0, 0, 15, 8, 0],
      extrapolate: 'clamp'
    });

    var circle_fill_colors = this.state.animation.interpolate({
      inputRange: [1, 2, 3, 4, 4.99, 5],
      outputRange: FILL_COLORS,
      extrapolate: 'clamp'
    })

    var circle_opacity = this.state.animation.interpolate({
      inputRange: [1, 9.99, 10],
      outputRange: [1, 1, 0],
      extrapolate: 'clamp'
    })


    return (
      <View style={styles.container}>
        <TouchableWithoutFeedback onPress={this.explode} style={styles.container}>
          <View style={{transform: [{scale: .8}]}}>
            <Surface width={deviceWidth} height={deviceHeight}>
              <Group x={75} y={200}>
                <AnimatedShape
                  d={HEART_SVG}
                  x={heart_x}
                  y={heart_y}
                  scale={heart_scale}
                  fill={heart_fill}
                />
                <AnimatedCircle
                  x={89}
                  y={75}
                  radius={150}
                  scale={circle_scale}
                  strokeWidth={circle_stroke_width}
                  stroke={FILL_COLORS[2]}
                  fill={circle_fill_colors}
                  opacity={circle_opacity}
                />

                {this.getSmallExplosions(75, {x: 89, y: 75})}
              </Group>
            </Surface>
          </View>
        </TouchableWithoutFeedback>
      </View>
    );
  }
};

class AnimatedCircle extends Component {
  render() {
    var radius = this.props.radius;
    var path = Path().moveTo(0, -radius)
      .arc(0, radius * 2, radius)
      .arc(0, radius * -2, radius)
      .close();
    return React.createElement(AnimatedShape);
  }
}

var styles = StyleSheet.create({
  container: {
    flex: 1,
  }
});

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持电脑玩物

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